Cursor variables are available to every PL/SQL client. The BULK COLLECT clause lets you fetch all rows from the result set at once. The expression needs only to be parsed once.
PL/SQL also conforms to the current ANSI/ISO SQL standard.
The scope of a savepoint is the transaction in which it is defined. The sequence of statements inside the loop is executed once for each row that satisfies the query.
If you execute a ROLLBACK statement or abort the SQL*Plus session, Oracle rolls back the transaction.
When all the rows are processed, you CLOSE the cursor variable.
When you use a string as the query, it can include placeholders for bind variables, and you specify the corresponding values with a USING clause.
%NOTFOUND is the logical opposite of %FOUND.
Example 6-14 uses %FOUND to select an action.
You can use either positional notation or named notation to pass the parameter values. Example 6-30 Stored Procedure to Open Ref Cursors with Different Queries. When a rollback to a savepoint is performed, the value of SQL%ROWCOUNT is not restored to the old value before the savepoint was taken. You can use CURRVAL and NEXTVAL only in a SELECT list, the VALUES clause, and the SET clause. In the following example, you declare a REF CURSOR type that represents a result set from the DEPARTMENTS table: REF CURSOR types can be strong (with a return type) or weak (with no return type).
If you expect a query to only return one row, you can write a regular SQL SELECT statement with an additional INTO clause specifying the PL/SQL variable to hold the result.
Or, you can pass cursor variables back and forth between a client and the database server through remote procedure calls. Unlike cursors, cursor variables take no parameters. To exit normally, you must explicitly commit or roll back all autonomous transactions. SInce you said it can be done thru dbms_sql , colud you please show me how to do it OR any other link pointing to . one at a time with a FOR loop; in bulk with FORALL. The main transaction shares its context with nested routines, but not with autonomous transactions. A single autonomous routine could contain several autonomous transactions, if it issued several COMMIT statements. If a DML statement affects zero rows, the values of the OUT binds after the DML executes are undefined. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction, making any changes made during that transaction permanent, and visible to other users. With this notation, you can use variables in place of values in the WHERE clause.
The %NOTFOUND attribute is not useful in combination with the SELECT INTO statement: If a SELECT INTO statement fails to return a row, PL/SQL raises the predefined exception NO_DATA_FOUND immediately, interrupting the flow of control before you can check %NOTFOUND. Answer for How to provide initialization data in app? PL/SQL recognizes the SQL pseudocolumns CURRVAL, LEVEL, NEXTVAL, ROWID, and ROWNUM. ( Id employee.id%Type, name employee.name%Type, manager employee.manager%Type); Type empt is table of employeeList; emptable empt; Select id, name, manager bulk collect into emptable from employee where name like 'A%'; BULK COLLECT can be used in combination with INSERT, DELETE and UPDATE statements in addition to batch binding with SELECT and FETCH.When combined with these DML statements, the RETURNING clause is needed to achieve batch binding. When the last row has been processed, you release the cursor with the CLOSE statement.
You can code the pragma anywhere in the declarative section of a routine. To get the current or next value in a sequence, use dot notation: Each time you reference the NEXTVAL value of a sequence, the sequence is incremented immediately and permanently, whether you commit or roll back the transaction. Thereafter, %FOUND yields TRUE if an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement affected one or more rows, or a SELECT INTO statement returned one or more rows. Or you might want to process some rows differently than others, and so need more than a simple loop.
If the INSERT statement tries to store a duplicate value in the employee_id column, the predefined exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX is raised.
For example, the following PL/SQL block opens multiple cursor variables in a single round trip: This technique might be useful in Oracle Forms, for instance, when you want to populate a multi-block form. Oracle raises an exception in the autonomous transaction, which is rolled back if the exception goes unhandled. For the syntax of the OPEN-FOR statement, see "OPEN-FOR Statement". Because there is no type checking with a weak REF CURSOR, all such types are interchangeable. Explicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of a multi-row query.
To centralize data retrieval, you can group type-compatible queries in a stored procedure. For example, two UPDATE statements might credit one bank account and debit another. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor, there must be a corresponding, type-compatible variable in the INTO list. To do so, you must resume the main transaction by exiting the autonomous routine. I guess number of columns returned by ref cursor might not matched the number of columns inside cursorRecordObj type. Example 6-22 displays the wages paid to employees earning over a specified wage in a specified department. The SELECT statement for the query can be coded directly in the statement, or can be a string variable or string literal. Example 6-34 Declaration of Cursor Variables in a Package. Reread my last reply to OP paying particular attention to this: Software in Silicon (Sample Code & Resources). Application development tools such as Oracle Forms, which have a PL/SQL engine, can use cursor variables entirely on the client side. Line 25. Suppose you want to track all inserts into a table, even those that roll back.
You can pass different numbers of actual parameters to a cursor, accepting or overriding the default values as you please. A simple rollback or commit erases all savepoints. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable name, these attributes return useful information about the execution of a SQL statement. PL/SQL raises an exception if you try to fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after doing a commit. DECLARE CURSOR guru99_det IS SELECT emp_name FROM emp; TYPE lv_emp_name_tbl IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(50); lv_emp_name lv_emp_name_tbl; BEGIN OPEN guru99_det; FETCH guru99_det BULK COLLECT INTO lv_emp_name LIMIT 5000; FOR c_emp_name IN lv_emp_name.FIRST .. lv_emp_name.LAST LOOP Dbms_output.put_line(‘Employee Fetched:‘||c_emp_name); END LOOP: … This technique is also useful for multi-language applications, where a PL/SQL subprogram might return a result set to a subprogram written in a different language, such as Java or Visual Basic. Example 6-27 Passing a REF CURSOR as a Parameter. Changes made by an autonomous transaction become visible to other transactions when the autonomous transaction commits.
Remember, autonomous transactions are fully independent of the main transaction.
Example 6-33 Fetching from a Cursor Variable into Collections.
To use the cursor variable, you must pass it as a host variable to PL/SQL. The savepoint to which you roll back is not erased. To detect the failure, use the cursor attribute %FOUND or %NOTFOUND. To define autonomous transactions, you use the pragma (compiler directive) AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.
After creating a sequence, you can use it to generate unique sequence numbers for transaction processing. Tests whether a character string matches a specified pattern, which can include wildcards. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR; TYPE NumList IS TABLE OF NUMBER; TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(25); emp_cv EmpCurTyp; empids NumList; enames NameList; sals NumList; BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR 'SELECT employee_id, last_name FROM employees'; FETCH emp_cv BULK COLLECT INTO empids, enames; CLOSE emp_cv; END; /. In a SELECT statement that is not nested in any other query expression, except when it is a subquery of the cursor expression itself. Connor and Chris don't just spend all day on AskTOM. Cursors and variables follow the same scoping rules. Example 6-45 marks a PL/SQL block as autonomous. If you want to fetch across commits, use the ROWID pseudocolumn to mimic the CURRENT OF clause. You use them when you want to perform a query in one subprogram, and process the results in a different subprogram (possibly one written in a different language). Any variables in the associated query are evaluated only when the cursor variable is opened.
Whether you issue the commit or rollback in your PL/SQL program or from a client program depends on the application logic.
Summary: in this tutorial, you will learn about PL/SQL cursor variables and how to manage cursors variables using REF CURSOR.. Introduction to PL/SQL cursor variables. Using these statements in Oracle database greatly reduces the number of environment switching between PL/SQL and SQL statement execution engine, thus greatly improving its performance.
Oracle closes the SQL cursor automatically after executing its associated SQL statement.
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